Any continuous bipolar waveform may be multiplied by itself to give a doubled frequency, discontinuous square or pulse waves will produce a DC offset and sawtooth waves produce the same frequency with altered harmonics. A sine wave will produce another sine wave an octave higher according to the trigonometry equation for squaring a sine.
sin² (A) = (1 - cos (2A))/2
Normalled connections allow this patch to be made with a single patchlead. N.B. Only the balanced bantam version has the inverted normalled connector to Input 6, unbalanced versions will require an external inverter.
Waveforms from the same VCO may be multiplied to produce different wave shapes. A triangle multiplied by a square gives a sawtooth an octave higher. A sawtooth multiplied by a square gives a triangle.
A pulse wave may be multiplied by other waveforms from the same VCO and then width modulated. A sawtooth multiplied by a pulse gives a triangle at 50% width and changes to a positive or negative sawtooth at 0% and 100%.
Complex Shape Modulation
Adding another VCO synchronised to the lower frequency generating the pulse enables a rich palette of waveforms to be created and modulated.
EMS-style Shape Modulation
Voltage controlled shape by full wave rectifying a sawtooth with an offset which varies from sawtooth through triangle to inverted sawtooth.
Centre Dead Zone
Voltage controlled shape by adding positive and negative rectified halves with a common complimentary offset.
Voltage controlled limits by adding a CV offset, rectifying and then subtracting the offset to restore the DC level.
Or the reverse.
Another inverter/summer, e.g. PinMix or SwitchMix, is required to do both positive and negative clipping.
LFO Modulation Processing
LFOs with ±5V outputs require accurate reduction for control of vibrato and trills. The dual level controls provide a coarse and fine attenuation for exact pitch depths and the positive half wave rectification can be used for unipolar trills.